Safe Optimized Static Memory Allocation for Parallel Deep Learning

Part of Proceedings of Machine Learning and Systems 5 pre-proceedings (MLSys 2023) mlsys2023


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Ioannis Lamprou, Zhen Zhang, Javier de Juan, Hang Yang, Yongqiang Lai, Etienne Filhol, Cedric Bastoul


Parallel training is mandatory in order to maintain performance efficiency and tackle memory constraints for deep neural network (DNN) models. For this purpose, a critical optimization in order to tune a parallelism strategy is to schedule tensors onto device memory in compilation time. In this paper, we present a safe and optimized solver for this problem capturing a general parallel scenario to enable execution in open-source MindSpore framework. The input is a computational graph and a partition of its operators into streams of execution, which may run in parallel. First, we design algorithms to efficiently and provably decide if it is safe, for any two tensors, to reuse memory. Second, given such a set of reuse constraints, as well as a set of contiguous constraints to enable bulk communication among processing elements, we design algorithms to assign an offset to each tensor, such that all constraints are satisfied and total memory is minimized. Our experiments in parallel training of a variety of DNNs demonstrate nearly optimal, improved in some cases, memory consumption compared to state-of-the-art (adapted for our setting) and a sequential execution lower bound. Our algorithms show compilation time gains of up to 44% in determining safety and up to 70% in tensor offset assignment.