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Tom Bannink, Adam Hillier, Lukas Geiger, Tim de Bruin, Leon Overweel, Jelmer Neeven, Koen Helwegen
We introduce Larq Compute Engine (LCE), a state-of-the-art Binarized Neural Network (BNN) inference engine, and use this framework to investigate several important questions about the efficiency of BNNs and to design a new leading BNN architecture. LCE provides highly optimized implementations of binary operations and accelerates binary convolutions by 8.5 - 18.5x compared to their full-precision counterparts on Pixel 1 phones. LCE's integration with Larq and a sophisticated MLIR-based converter allow users to move smoothly from training to deployment. By extending TensorFlow and TensorFlow Lite, LCE supports models which combine binary and full-precision layers, and can be easily integrated into existing applications. Using LCE, we analyze the performance of existing BNN computer vision architectures and develop QuickNet, a simple, easy-to-reproduce BNN that outperforms existing binary networks in terms of latency and accuracy on ImageNet. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of full-precision shortcuts and the relationship between number of multiply-accumulate operations and model latency. We are convinced that empirical performance should drive BNN architecture design and hope this work will facilitate others to design, benchmark and deploy binary models.